Chen, M. Dinnsen, D. Slowiaczek, L. Holmes, J.
Port, R. Labov, W. Faber, A. Manaster Ramer, A. Manaster Ramer, Journal of Phonetics , 24 4 , pp. Best, C. Strange ed. Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in cross-language research. Baltimore: York , pp. Charles-Luce, J. Grieser, D. Kuhl, P. Milroy, J. Strange Evolving theories of vowel perception. JASA Syrdal, and Gopal A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. The Polish diaspora is scattered all over the world, with the largest communities in the United States, Canada, South America esp.
Poles abroad use a variety of registers, ranging from a literary Polish through to the so-called polszczyzna polonijna Polish of the Polish community abroad. The former is characteristic of educated Poles active in politics, science or art e. The auxiliaries.
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Institutions and language planning. The Polish Language Council. The Polish Language Council of the Polish Academy of Sciences is the head institution authorized to adjudicate upon language correctness issues and to coordinate language policy of the state. The board consists of 38 members, mainly professors of linguistics from Polish universities and the Academy, as well as representatives of other disciplines e.
The Council organizes annual conferences devoted to language culture and policy issues.
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The Linguistics Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences is an elected body of distinguished Polish linguists which provides a scholarly backup to the Language Council. The Committee works directly and in commissions whose members come also from outside of the Committee. Language Culture Commission, which is instrumental in the issues of language policy, drafted a bill of the present Law of the Polish Language.
Language culture societies. The aim of the Society is to propagate reasonable love for the native.
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The Society has branches in all major cities in Poland apart from Warsaw. A territorial range of the Society is much smaller. Regional societies for research or culture often have committees active in propagating language culture and linguistic knowledge of Polish. Polish has now probably the best conditions for development in its thousand-year-old history.
Linguistic resources. Conventional resources. Conventional language resources include dictionaries and grammars. These forms of publications have a long and rich history in Poland. Polish lexicography dates back to the Middle Ages. The oldest lexicographic forms were Polish glosses in Latin texts.
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The oldest mini-dictionary — a Latin-Polish Wokabularz trydencki. Matuszczyk : Modern lexicography provides a wide range of types of dictionaries cf. It was based on 3, published texts.
A drawback of the dictionary was its highly normative attitude. Of the three great historical dictionaries only one has been completed:. It reports in a profound and innovative manner on the 16th century Polish.
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It is also the first dictionary which provides statistics. A number of other dictionaries were started but never completed. Accounts of the language of Cyprian Kamil Norwid Puzynina, ed. Handke, ed. This type of a dictionary is characteristic of the Polish lexicographic tradition. Foreign words dictionaries contain the newly borrowed items as well as the less assimilated ones, which potentially could present a comprehension difficulty to a common speaker.
The tradition dates back to the 19th century cf. In the lexicographic boom following the year , numerous new dictionaries of diverse quality were produced. Modern Polish lexicography offers a versatile choice of dictionaries of many kinds.
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A new updated and extended edition was published in Doroszewski and Kurkowska, eds. Among normative dictionaries, orthographic dictionaries have become traditional since the beginning of the 20th century. The largest ones contain tens of thousands of entries, e.
Phraseological dictionaries constitute another type: the oldest and largest is. Among numerous synonyms and antonyms dictionaries, the most well known is. This group encompasses dictionaries of local and professional registers, slang, colloquial Polish, swearwords and vulgarisms, etc. Since Polish lexicography has literally exploded with dictionaries, especially bilingual and orthographic ones.
Revised and updated editions are published much more regularly. Enlightenment brought the first grammar handbooks in Polish and for Poles. Numerous modern descriptive grammars of Polish have already been referred to in the present paper, among others: Grzegorczykowa et al. At least four of the printed dictionaries received an electronic version.
Polish language corpora are being collected for various purposes mainly by linguists and computer scientists at the universities and the Polish Academy of Sciences. Browsing through websites searching for the Polish language corpora brings us a result of ca 20 various corpus linguistics projects which resulted in a measurable and reliable though not necessarily available for general use corpus.
Some of them function under abbreviated names, e. Literature and culture. Literary masterpieces in the Polish language were written already in the Middle Ages, notably Bogurodzica th c. In the golden age of the last Jagiellonians Sigismund the Old and Sigismund August , which was the climax of the Polish renaissance, Polish literature flourished for the first time.
Jan Kochanowski was the greatest Slavic poet of the time. Baptised in , Poland entered the circle of Christian Latin culture of western and central Europe. In the Middle Ages Poland mainly relied on the European cultural achievements. The latter wrote already in Polish. Importantly, at least until half of the 17th century Poland, as a country without stakes, was a paragon of religious tolerance. Present and future role of Polish. The most important criterion deciding about the existence and future of a language is the number of its speakers.
Polish is ca the twentieth among the languages of the world with respect to the number of users and is thus very far from the status of an endangered language. There is no other nation that would consider Polish as its ethnic language, Polish is a national and codified language, its written variety is years old, the language has functional, social and territorial variants and it is the official language in Poland. Bibliographic orientation. Ann Arbor : Karoma. Morphopragmatics Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter.
Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang. Morfologia Warszawa : PWN. Warszawa : PWN. She has published extensively on phonology and phonetics, first and second language acquisition and morphology, in all the areas emphasizing the contrastive aspect especially with Polish, but also other languages, e. German, Italian. She has taught Polish linguistics at the University of Vienna. In she was nominated member of the Minister of Science and Higher Education advisory council for the National Programme for the Development of the Humanities. He has ca publications, including 11 books authored, co-authored and edited.
He is editor in chief of the annual journal Slavia Occidentalis, and member of the editorial board of another annual journal Fundamenta Europaea. WALS ; in troachaic rhythm left-hand syllable in the foot is strong. Gussmann : Klemensiewicz : , Walczak : Bajerowa : Plan 1.